P.C. Bermant, M.M. Bronstein, R.J. Wood, S. Gero#, and D.F. Gruber# (2019) Deep Machine Learning Techniques for Sperm Whale Bioacoustics: Detection and Classification of Echolocation Clicks and Codas. Scientific Reports. 9, Article number: 12588 # Co-senior authors
W.A.M. Beslin, H. Whitehead, and S. Gero (2019) Automatic acoustic estimation of sperm whale body lengths achieved through machine recognition of on-axis clicks. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144, 3485
C. Konrad, S. Gero, T. Frasier T, H. Whitehead (2018). Kinship influences sperm whale social organization within, but generally not among, social units. Royal Society Open Science 5: 180914.
A. Bøttcher, S. Gero, K. Bedholm, H. Whitehead, and P.T. Madsen (2018) Variability of the inter-pulse interval in sperm whale clicks with implications for size estimation and individual identification. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144(1): 365-374.
C. Konrad, T. Frasier, L. Rendell, H. Whitehead, and S. Gero (2018) Kinship and association do not explain variation in vocal repertoire among individual sperm whales or their social units. Animal Behaviour. 145: 131-140.
P. Tønnesen, S. Gero, M. Ladegaard, M. Johnson, and P.T. Madsen (2018) First year sperm whale calves echolocate and perform long, deep dives. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. 72:165-180.
C. Konrad, T. Frasier, H. Whitehead, and S. Gero (2018) Kin selection and allocare in sperm whales. Behavioral Ecology.
C. Konrad, A. Dupuis, S. Gero, and T. Frasier (2017) A sexing technique for highly degraded cetacean DNA. Aquatic Mammals 43(6): 655-660.
S. Gero and H. Whitehead (2016) Critical Decline of the Eastern Caribbean Sperm Whale Population. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0162019.
S. Gero, A. Bøttcher, H. Whitehead, and P.T. Madsen (2016) Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whales clans in the Atlantic Ocean. Royal Society Open Science 3: 160061.
S. Gero, H. Whitehead, and L. Rendell (2016) Individual, unit, and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas. Royal Society Open Science 3: 150372.
S. Gero, J. Gordon, and H. Whitehead (2015) Individualized social preferences and long-term social fidelity between social units of sperm whales. Animal Behaviour. 102: 15-23.
H. Whitehead and S. Gero (2015) Conflicting rates of increase in the sperm whale population of the eastern Caribbean: positive rates do not reflect a health population. Endangered Species Research. 27: 207-218.
S. Gero, M. Milligan, C. Rinaldi, P. Francis, J. Gordon, C. Carlson, A. Steffen, P. Tyack, P. Evans, and Hal Whitehead (2014) Behavior and Social Structure of the Sperm Whales of Dominica, West Indies. Marine Mammal Science 30: 905-922. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12086
H. Whitehead and S. Gero (2014) Using social structure to improve mortality estimates; an example with sperm whales. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5: 27-36. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12124
S. Gero, J. Gordon, and H. Whitehead (2013) Calves as social hubs: dynamics of the social network within sperm whale units. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1113 PDF
S. Gero (2012) The surprisingly familiar family lives of sperm whales. Journal of the America Cetacean Society 41: 16-20.
H. Whitehead, R. Antunes, S. Gero, D. Engelhaupt, and L. Rendell (2012) Multilevel societies of female sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the Atlantic and Pacific: why are they so different? International Journal of Primatology 33: 1142-1164. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-012-9598-z PDF
R. Antunes, T. Schulz, S. Gero, H. Whitehead, J. Gordon and L. Rendell (2011) Individually distinctive acoustic features in sperm whale codas Animal Behaviour 81(4): 723-730. DOI:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.12.019 PDF
T.M. Schulz, H. Whitehead, S. Gero and L. Rendell (2010) Individual vocal production in a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) social unit. Marine Mammal Science 27(1): 149-166. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00399.x PDF
D. Engelhaupt, A.R. Hoelzel, C. Nicholson, A. Frantzis, S. Mesnick, S. Gero, H. Whitehead, L. Rendell, P. Miller, R. De Stefanis, A.A. Mignucci-Giannoni (2009) Female philopatry in coastal basins and male dispersion across the North Atlantic in a highly mobile marine species, the Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Molecular Ecology 18: 4193-4205. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2009.04355.x PDF
S. Gero, D. Engelhaupt, L. Rendell, and H. Whitehead (2009) Who Cares? Between-group variation in alloparental care-giving in sperm whales. Behavioral Ecology 20(4): 838-843. DOI:10.1093/beheco/arp068 PDF
T.M. Schulz, H. Whitehead, S. Gero, and L. Rendell (2008) Overlapping and matching of codas in vocal interactions between sperm whales: Insights into communication function. Animal Behaviour 76: 1977-1988. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.07.032 PDF
S. Gero, D. Engelhaupt, and H. Whitehead (2008) Heterogeneous associations within a sperm whale unit reflect pairwise relatedness. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 143-151.
DOI: 10.1007/s00265-008-0645-x PDF Supplimentary Material
D. Lusseau, H. Whitehead, and S. Gero (2008) Incorporating uncertainty into the study of animal social networks. Animal Behaviour 75(5): 1809-1815. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.10.029 PDF
S. Gero, J. Gordon, C. Carlson, P. Evans, and H. Whitehead (2007) Population estimate and inter-island movement of sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, in the Eastern Caribbean. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 9(2): 143-150. PDF
S. Gero and H. Whitehead (2007) Suckling behaviour in sperm whales calves: observations and hypotheses. Marine Mammal Science 23(2): 398-413. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00113.x PDF
The DSWP has contributed to or was the focus of the following theses:
S. Gero (2012) On the dynamics of social relationships and vocal communications between individuals and units of sperm whales. DoctoralThesis, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada.
S. Wong (2012) A pelagic paradox: the ecology of a top predator in an oceanic desert. Doctoral thesis, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada.
R. Antunes (2009) Variation in sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) coda vocalizations and social structure in the North Atlantic Ocean. Doctoral thesis, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
T. Schulz (2007) The production and exchange of sperm whale coda vocalizations. Doctoral thesis, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada.
E. Joacbs (2019) The active space of sperm whale codas: inter-click information for intra-unit communication. Aarhus University, Denmark
W. Beslin (2018) Measuring inter-pulse intervals of sperm whale clicks: Development of an automatic method and its potential for identifying Eastern Caribbean social units. Dalhousie University, Canada.
C. Konrad (2017) Kinship in sperm whale society: Affects on association, alloparental care, and vocalizations. Dalhousie University, Canada.
M. Petroni (2017) Sperm whales, vessels and Fish Aggregating Devices; Spatial analysis for risk management off the coast of Dominica, WI. MSc Thesis, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
A. Bøttcher (2016) Identifying sperm whale individuals and clans through patterns of vocal variation. MSc thesis, Department of Zoophysiology, Bioscience, Aarhus University, Denmark.
M. Milligan (2013) Fine-scale distribution, habitat use, and movements of sperm whales. MSc thesis, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada.
S. Gero (2006) Fundatmentals of sperm whale societies: Care for calves, MSc thesis, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada.
M. Nielson (2016) Do sperm whales exhibit sympatric vocal clans in the North Atlantic Ocean? Bachelor Project, Department of Zoophysiology, Bioscience, Aarhus University, Denmark.
K. Wigley (2014) Acoustic techniques provide insight into the length and growth of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) found in four geographically separated populations. BSc Thesis, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland
A. Bøttcher (2014) Coda repertoires of sperm whale social units in the Eastern Caribbean indicates sympatric variation. Bachelor Project, Department of Zoophysiology, Bioscience, Aarhus University, Denmark.
L. Hoogenboom (2012) Comparing the prevalence of markings on the flukes of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. BSc thesis, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada.
V. Yaroshewski (2007) The diet of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the Sargasso Sea and the Caribbean. BSc thesis, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Canada.